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Theses authorised for defence

  • MARTÍNEZ MÉNDEZ, MIGUEL: Relación entre la Cultura Organizacional dominante y los Estilos de Liderazgos en la Policía de Puerto Rico
    Author: MARTÍNEZ MÉNDEZ, MIGUEL
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme:
    Department: Department of Engineering Design (PE)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 25/06/2014
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: FIGUEROA GONZÁLEZ, JOSE MANUEL
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: TEJEDOR CALVO, SANTIAGO
         SECRETARI: GONZALEZ BENITEZ, MARIA MARGARITA
         VOCAL: ARZAMENDI SÁEZ DE IBARRA, JESÚS
    Thesis abstract: Historically, theorists have attempted to develop an effective leadership model from the great man theory to present day philosophical leadership concepts. Present day theorists continue to identify and define transformational leadership as an effective leadership style in which leaders motivate subordinates' commitment to organizational goals, vision, and mission by empowerment them to take action in pursuit of organizational effectiveness. This effort to increase organizational effectiveness is also evident in industrial-organizational psychology's history with the work of the Gilbreths (1917) and Henry Ford 1913 on the USA vehicle industry Shenhow (1999).This paper investigates the relationship between organizational culture and the style of leadership in the Puerto Rico Police Department. Organizational culture is often an important factor influencing the competitive strength of any organizational entity. Leadership is also a critical component in the success an organization. It is important to understand how these two powerful determinants of organizational performance, culture and leadership, affect each other. Research determining that specific types of organizational culture favor particular styles of leadership is important as it aids organizational leaders to identify which styles of leadership are more likely to be successful in their culture. Furthermore, organizations wishing to change leadership styles may have to first modify their culture to support different leadership styles. This study uses the Competing Values Framework to define the organizational culture as clan, adhocracy, hierarchy, or market. Leadership style is defined as transformational, transactional, or laissez faire. Organization culture is measured using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the leadership style is determined by the MLQ 5X survey. Pearson's correlation and regression is used to determine the relationship between the variables. The results of this study indicate there is not a significant relationship between the dominant types of organizational cultures and leadership styles. Transactional, transformational and laisser-faire leadership styles were not significant statistical correlational found in hierarchy cultures.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS

  • MATVEEVA, ANASTASIIA: Poisson Structures on Moduli Spaces and Group Actions
    Author: MATVEEVA, ANASTASIIA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS
    Department: Department of Mathematics (MAT)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 30/06/2022
    Reading date: 03/10/2022
    Reading time: 17:00
    Reading place: FME per VIDEOCONFERÈNCIA https://meet.google.com/kjj-ynsf-mwp: Edifici U, Campus Sud
    Thesis director: MIRANDA GALCERÁN, EVA
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: RUBTSOV, VLADIMIR
         SECRETARI: DELSHAMS I VALDES, AMADEU
         VOCAL: KARSHON, YAEL
         VOCAL: CIRICI NÚÑEZ, JOANA
         VOCAL: LOGARES JIMÉNEZ, MARINA
    Thesis abstract: In this thesis, we study Poisson Structures on Moduli Spaces and Group actions. In particular, we focus on b^m-symplectic structures that can be seen both as symplectic structures with singularities and a particular type of Poisson structures. We also study Poisson structures on the character varieties associated with Fuchsian differential equations in relation with Riemann-Hilbert correspondence and how they can be transformed in case of higher order singularities. For b^m-symplectic manifolds, we consider different classes of group actions starting with b^m-Hamiltonian actions, a natural generalization of Hamiltonian moment maps for the singular symplectic setting. Then, we further generalize this notion as singular quasi-Hamiltonian group actions. The last generalization is motivated by those group actions that preserve a b^m-symplectic structure on the manifold but do not admit a conventional moment map. We use both moment maps (b^m-Hamiltonian and singular quasi-Hamiltonian) to prove a corresponding generalization of the Marsden-Weinstein reduction theorem, showing that in the singular setting, the reduction procedure eliminates the singularity. We prove a singular slice theorem as a first step for the reduction proof. We show that the singular Marsden-Weinstein reduction admits reduction "by stages" and commutes with the desingularization procedure.In the second part of this thesis, we turn to Poisson structures on moduli spaces of flat connections and monodromy data related by the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence. First, we consider several cases when the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence can be solved explicitly on an elliptic curve. Then we turn to the case of Painlevé transcendents on Riemann sphere. In particular, the Okamoto Hamiltonian for the second Painlevé equation carries a natural b-symplectic structure. For the rest of the equations, the structure is more complicated. We start with considering the Poisson structures on the moduli space of flat connections and character varieties corresponding to Fuchsian equations, where all the singularities are simple poles (in particular, Painlevé VI). We consider Poisson structures for which the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence is a Poisson morphism. We also study Poisson structures related to Painlevé V equation (3 poles: one of order 2 and two simple poles).
  • MONSÓ BURGUÉS, ENRIQUE PEDRO JAIME: Discrete operators and distances on subdivision networks
    Author: MONSÓ BURGUÉS, ENRIQUE PEDRO JAIME
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS
    Department: Department of Mathematics (MAT)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 27/07/2022
    Reading date: 20/10/2022
    Reading time: 11:00
    Reading place: FME Sala d'actes. Edifici U Campus SUD
    Thesis director: CARMONA MEJIAS, ANGELES | MITJANA RIERA, MARGARIDA
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: MORO CARREÑO, JULIO
         SECRETARI: JIMÉNEZ JIMÉNEZ, M. JOSÉ
         VOCAL: ABIAD MONGE, AIDA
    Thesis abstract: The research we have carried out lies within the domain of diffusion problems for elliptic operators that are defined on discrete structures called networks, that are graphs that are capable of discriminating between edges and between vertices per se as well.Typically elliptic problems are posed in the continuum setting, defined on surfaces or manifolds and are a corner stone of applied mathematics. Partial differential equations and the geometry of the domain where they are to be satisfied, as well as boundary conditions that a solution must fulfill are the ingredients of this critical tool in the development of mathematics for more than the last two hundred years. We are concerned with elliptical problems that refer to the discrete case. Diffusion in a discrete network is understood as the distribution of a physical entity between all different adjacent vertices of a given vertex. Although diffusion is conceived as a local phenomena that becomes globally widespread, our work is situated in a model that permits adjacencies with vertices that are not only in the spatial vicinity but can be situated far away, at the other end of the structure. Therefore allows an idea of diffusion that overcomes the classical concept. To carry out our research we have applied techniques of the so called Discrete Potential Theory. So the first framework where our work fits in is that of discrete boundary value problems. Specifically we have dealt with solving Poisson problems where the elliptical operator is the combinatorial Laplacian, the normalized Laplacian and Schrödinger type operators as well. The elementary graph operation of subdivision of an edge and, by extension, subdivision of all edges is very useful for deciding planarity of a given graph. But at the same time it can be intimately and undeniably related with the series connection of two elements in an electrical circuit. In our work we have developed a new concept of electrical subdivision (two versions) and we have analyzed the behavior of different diffusion problems in these contexts. Specifically, our main interest has been focused on relating the solution of a DBVP posed on an electrically subdivided network to the solution of another DBVP, related to the previous one, and posed on the pre-existing network, before the subdivision process has been applied. So, the main results obtained determine the relationship between the Green operators associated with an elliptical discrete difference operator that corresponds to a subdivided network and the Green operator associated with the same operator but corresponding to the initially given network. A second target that has been set ourselves, and on which we have been able to find nice results is the analysis of the effective resistances and which is the relationship that is stablished between effective resistances associated with a subdivision network and effective resistances corresponding to the network without being electrically subdivided. Finally a third main objective has been the study of the well known Kirchhoff index as a topologycal network invariant. We have managed to obtain the existing relation between Kirchhoff indices of an initial given network and an electrically compatible subdivision network obtained from it. Since both, the considered elliptic discrete operators that we have taken into account but their associated Green operators as well can be represented by matrices, a possible lecture of our results can be set in the field of computing generalized inverses matrices. Specifically we have found out entrywise expressions of Moore-Penrose inverse matrices of high-dimensional matrices in terms of the contents of Moore-Penrose matrices of smaller matrices. In this sense our results may be related to the well-known Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury expressions.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

  • BANDERAS BRAGA, MARCELO: El corte vertical y las casas modernas en las laderas de Quito (1960 - 1985)
    Author: BANDERAS BRAGA, MARCELO
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
    Department: Department of Architectural Design (PA)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 06/09/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: LINARES SOLER, ALFREDO
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: FERRER FORES, JAIME JOSE
         SECRETARI: ESCODA PASTOR, MARIA CARMEN
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: LLORACH HERRERO, ENRIC
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: ESTEBAN MALUENDA, ANA MARIA
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: FREDIANI I SARFATI, ARTURO
    Thesis abstract: Modern architecture arrived in Quito through a complex process of assimilation of the lessons and values that emerged in Western Europe and the United States in the early 20th and late 19th centuries.The location of Quito on the Andes mountains required an appropriate way of introducing an architecture that, as Colin Rowe has indicated, focused its attention on the exploration of space as a mainly horizontal condition, beyond any vertical freedom that it had enjoyed for over two thousand years. In response to these challenges a group of architects between 1960 and 1985 designed a series of modern houses that managed to respond to the physical, environmental, technological, and cultural conditions of a city that until the first decades of the 20th century was isolated from more technological developed countries. The location of these houses on the mountainous hills of the city, pushes us to evaluate and question the dependence on the plan as the primary graphic tool used in the analysis or these projects, which today are seen as fundamental for local modern architecture. By shifting the emphasis from the horizontal cut of the plan to the vertical cut of the section, a tectonic dimension is introduced into the design and analytical process, connecting space and form to conditions of load, materiality and sensory perception. In this investigation we will see how the vertical cut, due to its capacity to make evident the material assemblies used in the different elements that come into contact with the ground, as well as those that rise more lightly toward the sky, tend to reveal architectural intentions which are usually hidden behind the finished surface of a project. In these the tectonic objectives used to give character or perceptual value to the different spaces, introducing notions of techné as the ontological essence of architecture.This led to the creation of an architecture that implicitly or explicitly incorporated the horizontal fluidity typical of early 20th century modern space with the vertical openness of the courtyard house. This typological cross between pavilion and courtyard, more than a nostalgic crossbreeding between past and present, arose from an objective response to the external topographic, environmental and phenomenological forces to which the young architects of this period responded. Therefore, the vertical cut of the house, and its placement on one or more platforms located on different levels, altered the idea of the architectural object as an isolated pavilion, where the exterior garden, more than an open and continuous space becomes a series of courtyards with clear physical and dimensional limits, resulting from the displacement of the bearing walls of the tradicional house to the perimeter of the site, generating an ambiguous reading between what is inside and outside.In this sense, the irregular topography of the sloping sites on which the modern houses were built between 1960 and 1985, can be seen not only as a constructive challenge, but as a catalyst that led to spatial, morphological and material solutions of great value. For this reason, independent of the particular strategy of vertical cut used, we find in the section and the horizontal and vertical displacement of certain elements such as slab, wall or roof, an ideal design tool for the investigation of architectural form, materiality, space and sensory perception.In conclusion, despite the fact that the modern movement assigned to the plan or horizontal cut the role of primary design tool, this investigation proposes that the section, rather than a drawing that only emphasizes the technical and material aspects of a building, is one that allows the architect to think of space as directly related to place, where space is intertwined with the sensory conditions of perception and the world as experience by the human body.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURAL, BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND URBANISM TECHNOLOGY

  • ARIAS HOLGUÍN-VERAS, PALOMA MAGDALENA: Reconocimiento y evaluación de la superficie de los vidrios smalti usados en revestimientos de trencadís
    Author: ARIAS HOLGUÍN-VERAS, PALOMA MAGDALENA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURAL, BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND URBANISM TECHNOLOGY
    Department: Department of Architectural Technology (TA)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 25/07/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: ZAMORA MESTRE, JOAN LLUIS
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: GÓMEZ RAMIÓ, JÚLIA
         SECRETARI: OLONA CASAS, JOAN
         VOCAL: IGLESIAS CAMPOS, MANUEL ÁNGEL
    Thesis abstract: This doctoral thesis delves into the knowledge of Venetian glass known as smalti, a unique material with a long history whose main application has been as a tesserae of mosaic cladding. During the Modernism period architecture paid great interest to discontinuous coatings; techniques, such as mosaic, had a revival that came hand in hand with an interest in the materials that traditionally composed it, so the smalti is introduced in this context and also adapts to the new techniques that emerged in this period as the trencadís.The main objectives of this thesis were: to carry out a study to understand the surface characteristics of the material, to review its behavior as part of the trencadis coating and to understand the surface aging of the material. It is developed in two main parts in order to approach the subject from a global perspective. The first was made possible through the study of a set of current glass samples from one of the reference workshops for the manufacture of smalti; based on these samples, a study of their primary surface anomalies and a color characterization was carried out. This material, which is still manufactured today in an artisanal way, is characterized by allowing a wide variation of shades; with the use of a portable spectrocolorimeter a color catalog was made, using the CIE L*C*hº and CIE L*a*b* color spaces, as a tool that allows the subsequent identification and comparison of colors in non-industrialized materials.In a second part, using trencadis specimens made with smalti tesserae, the secondary and tertiary anomalies generated later during the coating process were identified and classified. Subsequently, durability studies of these specimens were carried out with accelerated aging tests that allowed periodic monitoring of the progression of damage to the specimens and the identification of the quaternary anomalies that occurred at this stage. Smalti has proven to be a handcrafted material capable of meeting the requirements of trencadis cladding; for its correct selection, conservation or restoration, a thorough understanding of the advantages and limitations it offers is needed. It was confirmed that the durability of this glass depends on an adequate protection of its surface, that it is crucial to make a correct initial selection of the pieces that present a lower amount of first anomalies and to use the face with the highest quality of the glass as the face side.Key words: smalti, coating, trencadis, color, CIELCh, CIELab, surface

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

  • VILLANUEVA RETAMALES, LAURA ALICIA: Entendiendo los Parques Nacionales como reflejo de nuestra capacidad para vivir en un medio natural. Una mirada a través de la habitabilidad, Parque Torres del Paine
    Author: VILLANUEVA RETAMALES, LAURA ALICIA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
    Department: Department of Architectural Technology (TA)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 07/07/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: CUCHÍ BURGOS, ALBERTO
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: MARAT-MENDES, TERESA
         SECRETARI: PAGES RAMON, ANNA
         VOCAL: VÁSQUEZ FIERRO, VIRGINIA
    Thesis abstract: Since last decade, tourism in Chilean Patagonia has grown rapidly, largely promoted by State policies and encouraged by privately held companies, whose objective is to turn this region into a pole of attraction for tourist growth and the country¿s economic development.This tourist scheme is clearly based on the geographical values of the southernmost extreme of Chilean Patagonia whose natural environment is one of the most fragile in the country. With highly sensitive ecosystems to anthropic alterations, and a small population, this territory lacks legal territorial policies to protect and promote its biodiversity. These sources of interest are mainly located within the Magallanes Region, specifically located within the National System of Protected Wild Areas, and they represent 58.9% of the total regional area and 17% of the country. Hence, Torres del Paine National Park (PNTP) is the regional unit (181,229 hectares) that receives the highest number of visitors, and every ten years since 2002, it has doubled the income. Between the years 2014 and 2016, and as a consequence of this exponential growth, there was an impact on health and sanitation, congestion and waste management that has trespassed the park¿s boundaries. The "irruption of nature tourism" requires the services to meet the visitors¿ needs. However, since its origin these needs have been solved through an unsustainable path and with poor management measures of their impact. It is precisely the lack of awareness for the conservation of PNTP that gives origin to this research. Although in Chile there are still Protected Wilderness Areas located at latitudes higher than the PNTP, these have been kept away from the tourist offer for years. Difficult accessibility and the lack of facilities have prevented the tourist industry from expanding. Nevertheless, and with arguments in favour of decentralising the activity flow at PNTP, these other areas are intended to be a centre of attraction for tourism development in the near future. The nature of these other extended areas makes tourists inhabit them temporarily. At present, there are no sustainable management plans to deal with the issue of habitability through a material flow methodology. Understanding what national parks are and how we relate to them when hiking and temporarily inhabiting them, we acknowledge the bond between conservation and tourism. Therefore, this dissertation intends to tackle sustainability issues and measure how much park we need to maintain human activities in natural environments. This research analyzed the metabolic flows and material flows of four habitability models within the Paine Mountain Range circuit. The material flows estimate was measured to not only to visualize the boundaries of influence of the park, but also to assess the sustainable development of PNTP, since the current activities are habitability and meeting the visitors¿ and rangers¿ basic needs. This research concludes that it is absolutely necessary to formulate a new perspective when dealing with human activities and the conservation of natural environments. If we consider the Earth as a large habitable park, we should then look after the closing of its cycles and see the value of a sustainable model.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN AUTOMATIC CONTROL, ROBOTICS AND VISION

  • ANDRIELLA, ANTONIO: Personalising robot assistance for cognitive training therapy
    Author: ANDRIELLA, ANTONIO
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN AUTOMATIC CONTROL, ROBOTICS AND VISION
    Department: Institute of Robotics and Industrial Informatics (IRI)
    Mode: Temporary seizure
    Deposit date: 27/07/2022
    Reading date: 13/10/2022
    Reading time: 12:00
    Reading place: Sala d¿Actes de la Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística (FME), Carrer de Pau Gargallo, 14, 08028 Barcelona
    Thesis director: ALENYÀ RIBAS, GUILLEM | TORRAS GENIS, CARMEN
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: ROSSI, SILVIA
         SECRETARI: ANGULO BAHON, CECILIO
         VOCAL: DI NUOVO, ALESSANDRO
    Thesis abstract: There are 50 million people worldwide living with dementia, and this number is projected to triple by 2050. While there are no pharmacological treatments for this syndrome, behavioural therapy such as cognitive training can maintain or improve the patients' general cognitive functioning, eventually prolonging ageing in place. However, the number of patients who require such treatment greatly exceeds the number of healthcare professionals' availability.Robots have the potential to bridge this gap by facilitating this training regimen and enhancing therapists¿ effectiveness in delivering cognitive therapy.A key enabling technology is personalisation. Indeed, the ability to personalise such treatments to suit the preferences and goals of an individual is crucial to improving the quality and efficacy of the intervention and increasing users¿ engagement over long-term interactions. Despite the recent advances, many questions still need to be addressed regarding the design, development, and deployment of social robots for such purposes.This thesis postulates a set of these questions with which we aim to pursue our main goal: the development of a fully autonomous robot for delivering cognitive training. In the scope of this thesis, we tackled personalisation by designing robots that are both adaptable and adaptive. Adaptable in such a manner as to enable therapists to set them up and customise their high-level behaviour. Adaptive in such a manner that they can tailor their intervention to suit the individual¿s unique needs as they evolve through time.Building upon this idea, the work has taken a therapist-oriented approach in which healthcare professionals¿ expertise can be reflected in the design of a set of functionalities needed for the development and deployment of a personalised fully autonomous robotic system. Toward such a goal, this thesis explores the impact of robots' human-like characteristics, such as personality, communication style, and backchannelling behaviour, on the users¿ intention to use the robot and their task performance. On the other hand, it investigates several AI techniques for robots' reasoning, aiming at learning socially assistive behaviour that better suits the user's abilities.This thesis culminates by proposing a novel framework called aCtive leARning agEnt aSsiStive bEhaviouR (CARESSER). CARESSER enables therapists to customise the robot¿s assistive behaviour (adaptable) and allows the robot to learn in situ personalised patient-specific policies (adaptive) in a fully autonomous fashion. Through the development and evaluation of CARESSER, this work contributes to both the fields of HRI and AI, especially on how social robots can learn by leveraging therapists' expertise and demonstrations, which has the benefits of speeding up the learning process, eliminating the need for the design of complex reward functions, and finally, avoiding undesired states that may have a negative impact on the patients.
  • SANZ I LÓPEZ, VÍCTOR: Modelling and control of high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells for combined heat and power comfort applications
    Author: SANZ I LÓPEZ, VÍCTOR
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN AUTOMATIC CONTROL, ROBOTICS AND VISION
    Department: Institute of Robotics and Industrial Informatics (IRI)
    Mode: Temporary seizure
    Deposit date: 25/07/2022
    Reading date: 04/10/2022
    Reading time: 12:00
    Reading place: Sala d'Actes de la Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística (FME), C. Pau Gargallo, 14. 08028 Barcelona
    Thesis director: COSTA CASTELLO, RAMON | BATLLE ARNAU, CARLES
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: BARRERAS TOLEDO, FÉLIX
         SECRETARI: SERRA PRAT, MARIA
         VOCAL: RENAU MARTÍNEZ, JORDI
    Thesis abstract: In this thesis, a model predictive control-based energy management system for a specific house powered by a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell is presented. Fuel cells and combined heat and power technologies are presented as a possible solution due to their ability to provide both electrical and thermal energy more efficiently compared to traditional methods. Related to this, high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells offer the possibility of implementing combined heat and power systems, and they are also considered an efficient technology that emits less greenhouse gases. For this purpose, different models for the fuel cell are developed and analysed, until one suitable for simulation together with the other elements is selected. Models for elements in the whole combined heat and power system are designed and combined, that is, electrical battery, water accumulators, solar panel and electroliser. Solar panels have been included to feed an electroliser responsible of generating hydrogen for the fuel cell, while the electrical battery and a water accumulator have been implemented to ensure demand and thermal continuity along time, helping the fuel cell when dealing with abrupt demand changes. Additionally, grid connections have been allowed in case of punctual need, as well as a certain heat generation from electrical power. Simulation and control models of the system are presented, together with dimensions and energy profiles used. Control objectives and the proposed control algorithm are detailed, and the results when trying to match residential heat and power demands are discussed, while trying to ensure energy efficiency and reduce fuel cell degradation.Finally, a tuning process based on Pareto fronts is studied to prioritise some objectives above others and the global system results are obtained for a typical simulated house in different scenarios. These scenarios have been selected based on different periods of the year with different thermal demands and climatic conditions, affecting both demands and solar panel operation.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

  • TORRELL MARTINEZ, FRANCESCA: Factores de éxito para la implantación y sostenibilidad del total productive maintenance (TPM)
    Author: TORRELL MARTINEZ, FRANCESCA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
    Department: Department of Management (OE)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 13/06/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: OLIVELLA NADAL, JORGE | CUATRECASAS ARBOS, LUIS
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: DE CASTRO VILA, RODOLFO
         SECRETARI: CALLEJA SANZ, GEMA
         VOCAL: DE LA TORRE MARTÍNEZ, MARÍA DEL ROCÍO
    Thesis abstract: This doctoral thesis aims to broaden the knowledge around the key factors in the implementation and sustainability of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) with the study of 3 case studies of companies located in Barcelona and belonging to different sectors.The TPM is a project with a global scope, but focused on the maintenance strategy, and the management of equipment from its design, reliability and maintainability throughout its entire life cycle efficiently.In some companies, the tools and basics of the TPM are understood and in many cases applied, but they are not internalized and do not become part of the organization's work culture, and over time the system ends up degenerating.To carry out this thesis, we have worked with data from three corpus of a different nature: the analysis of the existing literature, the data obtained from interviews with the agents involved and the in-situ analysis of the results obtained in the companies.The novel areas addressed in this thesis are the determination of the factors identified in the 3 case studies and a visual audit system that promotes an easy and agile review of the TPM deployment in a pyramidal shape that allows aligning the strategic objectives of the company with the objectives of the TPM project that has been applied in a company in the automotive sector.In some organizations, the results could have been obtained perhaps without the implementation of Lean or TPM, but derived from the investigation of this thesis, not with the same level of resources, investments, the same level of efficiency and the same sustainability in time.Common success factors considered are:- Strategic alignment through the definition of general indicators and the specification of specific indicators for each APU (Autonomous Production Unit) or section of the company.- The Management's commitment to the TPM project, with its active participation in the activities that correspond to it and the dedication of human and material resources to ensure all stages of the implementation and sustainability of the TPM, creating a climate and culture of the TPM in the organization.- The hourly monitoring of production through Visual Management that allows the detection of deviations and action by the organization according to the standard defined by the company.- The visual management of the indicators, together with the Daily Meeting and the review through the Gemba Walk that allow the company to focus on critical existing problems.- Training in Lean, TPM and quality tools for problem solving (Pareto, Ishikawa, 5 whys diagrams) or the use of PDCA and A3 adapted to the needs of the different levels of the organization.- The use of personnel polyvalence matrices for the definition of needs within a TPM environment and the carrying out of training and qualifications to cover the defined needs.- Standardized work in the manufacturing and maintenance areas. - The deployment of autonomous maintenance and the management of preventive maintenance by manufacturing and maintenance that has to allow maintaining the working conditions of the equipment defined by the company.- The existence of computer systems and/or generation and exploitation of data that allow their visual display on the data panel, together with the organization's monitoring of deviations and action plans for improvement.- The existence of a Maintenance Management Software, which allows the management of information on preventive and corrective maintenance tasks for subsequent analysis and creation of action plans for the improvement of those that allow the increase of the OEE.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING

  • GARCIA DE ANDRÉS, XÈNIA: In situ studies of catalytic processes by Near Ambient X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Author: GARCIA DE ANDRÉS, XÈNIA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING
    Department: Department of Chemical Engineering (EQ)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 18/07/2022
    Reading date: 25/10/2022
    Reading time: 12:00
    Reading place: Sala Polivalent, Edifici I, planta baixa, Campus Diagonal-Besos (EEBE).
    Thesis director: LLORCA PIQUE, JORDI | ESCUDERO RODRÍGUEZ, CARLOS
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: BUENO LÓPEZ, AGUSTÍN
         SECRETARI: JIMÉNEZ DIVINS, NÚRIA
         VOCAL: FRAXEDAS CALDUCH, JORDI
    Thesis abstract: Labels misplacement in the bottles are currently causing problems in wine cellar's labelling lines. According to data provided by Codorníu and Torres cellars, 1 % of the bottles present this issue. Once the wine or cava have been bottled, the bottles pass through the labeling station and the scanner separates the correctly labeled bottles from those with imperfections. When a considerable number of bottles are involved, the wine is emptied and rebottled, while the labeled bottle is discarded. However, if few bottles are mislabeled, a worker manually removes the labels with a scraper and retums the bottles to the labeling line. Of course, this is a problem.In this thesis, a system has been developed consisting of a pressure-sensitive adhesive anda detaching station that allows the adhesive to be deactivated for easy removal of misplaced labels. The adhesive had to meet the current market requirements and to be easily peeled off easily in the detaching station to leave the bottle completely clean to it can be relabelled without being taken out of the labelling lines.As bottles are full when they pass through the detaching station, a technology that could quickly remove the labels from the bottles at 25ºC was required to avoid affecting the quality of the product. lt was designed to include a cleaning solution bath, a thermostatic, and a mechanical agitator. Several chemical components with different weight ratios were tested for the cleaning solution formulation to determine the most effective solution.The design of the adhesive was sub-divided into 5 parts. First, the influence of the soft monomers: n-butyl acrylate and 2- ethylhexyl acrylate influence was studied via semi-batch emulsion polymerization taking as a starting point a formulation recipe composed of n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid. In the second part, the influence of including a hard monomer, such as acrylonitrile, was studied.In both studies it was observed that the adhesives showed poor water resistance. For it, in the third part, different polymerizable surfactants were studied as stabilizer of the emulsion and were compared with the conventional surfactant used in the base formulation. The use a polymerizable surfactant clear1y increased the water resistance of the adhesives. Although the incorporation of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate showed better adhesive performance, the acrylonitrile showed better results in the detaching bath. For it, it was decided to continue the experiments introducing in the formulation the weight ratio of acrylonitrile that showed the best balance between the adhesive properties and its performance in the detaching bath and the polymerizable surfactant that showed the highest water resistance.In the fourth part, the optimization of the adhesive properties balance was carried out by the study of the influence of acrylic acid as functional monomer and the tert-dodecyl mercaptan as chain transfer agent. Clearly, the acrylic acid improved all adhesive properties. However, the maximum amount of acrylic acid testad only improved the shear resistance since with the gel content increase, the peel resistance and tack properties deceased. On the other hand, the chain transfer agent only improved the peel resistance and tack. Therefore, it was not possible to achieve a good performance among the three adhesive properties.Finally, the influence of adhesiva preparation process was investigated. In this case an improvement in the balance of adhesive properties was observed.Several of the pressure-sensitive adhesives carne close to current market requirements, as well as showing excellent results in the detaching station.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

  • MASÓ SOTOMAYOR, MIGUEL: Coupling shallow water models with three-dimensional models for the study of fluid-structure interaction problems using the particle finite element method
    Author: MASÓ SOTOMAYOR, MIGUEL
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
    Department: (DECA)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 22/07/2022
    Reading date: 29/09/2022
    Reading time: 11:30
    Reading place: Sala O.Zienkiewicz - Edifici C1, 2a planta, Campus Nord 08034 Barcelona
    Thesis director: OÑATE IBAÑEZ DE NAVARRA, EUGENIO | DE POUPLANA SARDÀ, IGNASI
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: IDELSOHN BARG, SERGIO RODOLFO
         SECRETARI: BLADE CASTELLET, ERNEST
         VOCAL: ORTIZ ROSSINI, PABLO
    Thesis abstract: This thesis investigates numerical methods for the simulation of surface water flows, focusing on the interaction between the large scale and the local scale and its application to natural hazards. Several families of numerical methods for the approximation of large scale phenomena and the coupling with the local scale have been analyzed.The general motion of a fluid mass is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, which can accurately solve the local scale phenomena. However, the same level of accuracy is not required by the large scale solution of the water-related events. In this context, the shallow water equations are defined. In contrast to the extensive use of the Finite Element Method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations, the shallow-water equations are usually solved with the Finite Volume Method. Thus, an effort have been done to solve both equations in an unified framework.The first part of this thesis is devoted to study stabilized formulations of Finite Element Method for the different forms of the shallow water equations. Stabilized formulations arise from the need to mitigate the various instabilities inherent in numerical approximations. The first source of instability is the incompatibility of the equal interpolation of the variables. The second source of instability is the presence of shocks due to the change of regime or hydraulic jumps. Finally, Gibbs oscillations may appear on the moving shoreline and monotonic properties of the physical system are lost by the numerical approximation.The second part of the thesis is committed to the coupling strategies of the numerical methods for the Navier-Stokes and the shallow water equations. The case of a coupling from the local scale to the large scale is analyzed. This type of coupling corresponds to the generation of cascading natural hazard. The proposed strategy combines a Lagrangian Navier Stokes multi-fluid solver with an Eulerian method based on the Boussinesq equations, an extension of the shallow water equations.Finally, the proposed technique is applied to the numerical simulation of landslide-generated impulse waves. The Particle Finite Element Method has been used to model the landslide runout, its impact against the water body and the consequent wave generation. The results of this fully-resolved analysis are stored at selected interfaces and then used as input for the modelling of waves propagation on the far-field.This one-way coupling scheme drastically reduces the computational cost of the analyses while maintaining high accuracy in reproducing the key phenomena of cascading natural hazards.
  • REFACHINHO DE CAMPOS, PAULO ROBERTO: A New Updated Reference Lagrangian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Framework for Large Strain Solid Dynamics ans its Extension to Dynamic Fracture
    Author: REFACHINHO DE CAMPOS, PAULO ROBERTO
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
    Department: (DECA)
    Mode: Change of supervisor
    Deposit date: 22/07/2022
    Reading date: 27/09/2022
    Reading time: 14:00
    Reading place: ETSECCPB- https://swanseauniversity.zoom.us/j/92197751813?pwd=enZ6Sk5xRk5OdXRkV0tqUndaWldZQT09
    Thesis director: HUERTA CEREZUELA, ANTONIO | GIACOMINI, MATTEO | GIL RUIZ, ANTONIO JAVIER | LEE, CHUN HEAN
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: SEVILLA CÁRDENAS, RUBÉN
         SECRETARI: ROGERS, BENEDICT
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: KHAYYER, ABBAS
    Thesis abstract: This work presents a new updated reference Lagrangian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm for the analysis of large deformation by introducing a novel system of first order conservation laws. Both isothermal and thermally coupled scenarios are considered within the elasticity and elasto-plasticity domains. Taking as point of departure a total Lagrangian setting and considering as referential configuration an intermediate configuration of the deformation process, the equation of conservation of linear momentum and three geometric conservation laws (for the deformation gradient, its cofactor and its determinant) are rewritten leading to a very generic (incremental) system of first order conservation laws, which can be degenerated into a total Lagrangian system or into a purely updated Lagrangian system. The key feature of the formulation is a suitable multiplicative decomposition of the conservation variables, leading to a very simple final set of equations with striking similarities to the conventional total Lagrangian system albeit rewritten in terms of incremental updated conservation variables which are evolved in time. Taking advantage of this new incremental updated Lagrangian formalism, a second order (in space and time) entropy-stable SPH upwiding stabilisation method derived by means of the use of the Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions is introduced. No ad-hoc algorithmic regularisation procedures are needed. To demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the methodology, a wide spectrum of challenging problems are presented and compared, including benchmarks in hyperelasticity, elasto-plasticity and dynamic fracture problems. The work explores the use of a series of novel expressions for the evaluation of kernels and the gradients of kernels, all leading to equally convincingly robust results and circumventing the issues faced by classic isotropic (spherical) kernels in the presence of strong anisotropic changes in volume.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN COMPUTATIONAL AND APPLIED PHYSICS

  • DALLA PORTA DORNELLES, LEONARDO: Modelling emergent rhythmic activity in the cerebal cortex.
    Author: DALLA PORTA DORNELLES, LEONARDO
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN COMPUTATIONAL AND APPLIED PHYSICS
    Department: Department of Physics (FIS)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 26/07/2022
    Reading date: 07/10/2022
    Reading time: 11:00
    Reading place: FIB- Enllaç de la sala de defensa publica en zoom: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/86597459567
    Thesis director: SÁNCHEZ VIVES, MARIA VICTORIA | DESTEXHE, ALAIN
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: MATTIA, MAURIZIO
         SECRETARI: MASOLLER, CRISTINA
         VOCAL: MASSIMINI, MARCELLO
    Thesis abstract: The brain, a natural adaptive system, can generate a rich dynamic repertoire of spontaneous activity even in the absence of stimulation. The spatiotemporal pattern of this spontaneous activity is determined by the brain state, which can range from highly synchronized to desynchronized states. During slow wave sleep, for example, the cortex operates in synchrony, defined by low-frequency fluctuations, known as slow oscillations (<1Hz). Conversely, during wakefulness, the cortex is characterized mainly by desynchronized activity, where low-frequency fluctuations are suppressed. Thus, an inherent property of the cerebral cortex is to transit between different states characterized by distinct spatiotemporal complexity patterns, varying in a large spectrum between synchronized and desynchronized activity. All these complex emergent patterns are the product of the interaction between tens of billions of neurons endowed with diverse ionic channels with complex biophysical properties. Nevertheless, what are the mechanisms behind these transitions? In this thesis, we sought to understand the mechanisms and properties behind slow oscillations, their modulation and their transitions towards wakefulness by employing experimental data analysis and computational models. We reveal the relevance of specific ionic channels and synaptic properties to maintaining the cortical state and also get out of it, and its spatiotemporal dynamics. Using a mean-field model, we also propose bridging neuronal spiking dynamics to a population description.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

  • RIVAS BARRAGAN, DANIEL: Optimizing edge cloud deployments for video analytics
    Author: RIVAS BARRAGAN, DANIEL
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
    Department: (DAC)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 21/07/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: CARRERA PÉREZ, DAVID | GUIM BERNAT, FRANCESC
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: RODERO CASTRO, IVAN
         SECRETARI: CORBALAN GONZALEZ, JULITA
         VOCAL: KERTESZ, ATTILA
    Thesis abstract: As our digital world and physical realities blend together, we, as users, are growing to expect real-time interaction wherever and whenever we want. Newer internet services require lower latency than a data center hundreds of kilometers away can provide, while generating more data than the backhaul of the network can absorb. Consequently, resources are being moved to the edge of the network to create a new type of highly distributed cloud infrastructure: the edge cloud.Edge cloud deployments differ from traditional cloud deployments in two crucial points that, altogether, arise new challenges. First, edge locations are constrained by the amount of resources they can host, limiting the services these locations can execute and provide. Moreover, this limitation causes service providers to have a narrower spectrum of hardware from which to choose when executing their services at a given location while increasing the heterogeneity of the infrastructure as a whole. That is, resource-constrained nodes and hardware accelerated server-grade nodes will coexist, not within the same location, but within the same network. Services must consider this heterogeneity and adapt to it transparently. Second, contrary to traditional cloud locations, user aggregation is limited in the edge, as each location serves only its designated geographical region. Consequently, service providers face the challenge of understanding the impact of considering locality, hardware heterogeneity, and the compute requirements of their workloads while designing new deployments.Among all the services and use cases expected to be accelerated from the edge, one stands out from the rest. Video analytics is already today the main use case being deployed to the edge due to its strict latency requirements and the high amount of bandwidth it continuously generates. In fact, the edge cloud is deemed as a necessary accelerator for video analytics deployments to be feasible and cost-effective at scale. Unfortunately, video analytics is a computationally expensive task, often requiring high-end hardware acceleration to provide real-time performance to a single user. In a context in which resources become scarcer the closer they are to the edge of the network, such high computational cost easily exceeds what the infrastructure can provide unless the entire workflow is optimized. Therefore, there is a need for new techniques that can enable video analytics to be served from resource-constrained nodes without compromising the user experience, while, at the same time, being able to maximize resource utilization there where resources are scarcer.In this context, this thesis contributes to the optimization of edge cloud deployments aimed at providing service of video analytics workloads through distributed and resource-constrained edge infrastructures. Towards this end, this thesis contributes to the state-of-the-art by (C1) characterizing video analytics workloads on an heterogeneous set of hardware platform, each mapping to a different edge location archetype; (C2) developing and presenting a novel framework to accelerate large-scale deployments by leveraging the potential of a hybrid Edge-Cloud interplay and automating the task of optimizing neural networks and specializing them to the specific deployment's context; and, finally, (C3) developing a novel method to enable video analytics workloads to be massively distributed across different edge of locations.Together, the contributions of this thesis define the hardware requirements of a heterogeneous edge cloud (C1) and open the door to new ways to adapt, optimize (C2), and distribute (C3) video analytics workloads for the edge cloud.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

  • RILLO MORAL, FRANCESC IU: New Autonomous sensor system for the continous monitoring of the composting process from the inside
    Author: RILLO MORAL, FRANCESC IU
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
    Department: Department of Electronic Engineering (EEL)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 11/01/2016
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: CASAS PIEDRAFITA, JAIME OSCAR
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: BRETTERKLIEBER, THOMAS
         SECRETARI: QUILEZ FIGUEROLA, MARCOS
         VOCAL: CASAS NEBRA, ROBERTO JOSE
    Thesis abstract: The composting process is Nature¿s way of recycling organic wastes with a good quality organic fertilizer as a result. This process, though, needs of a thoroughly monitoring of temperature and humidity for a good resulting material. During this Ph.D thesis we developed a wireless temperature and humidity autonomous system that monitored from the inside of compost. The fact of measuring and transmitting from the inside implies the need of a protection for the circuit and an issue in the measure.Temperature suffers delays when measuring from the inside of a protection and, as such, we developed an algorithm, implementable on microcontrollers, to counteract the effects of first order step responses. The conditioning has been optimized in terms of components and consumption, obtaining a theoretical and experimental comparative between the classic conditioning and the use of direct interfaces.Commercial humidity sensors need to be in direct contact with the environment they are measuring, but that is not possible in compost since they can get damaged. That is why we designed a humidity sensor based on coplanar capacitive electrodes that can measure through a protection layer. Some theoretical models have been obtained for the physical optimization of both the sensor and the influence of the protective layer.Compost has never been characterised as a transmission environment, and as such, communications in compost are innovative. The heterogeneity of the material and its changes in humidity, temperature and density made the transmission complex. We found the proper frequency band to commercially work in compost and the RF transmission model in compost to estimate attenuation vs distance.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

  • GASPARINI, ANDREA: Experimental and numerical modelling of CO2 behaviour in the soil-atmosphere interface. lmplications far risk assessment of carbon capture storage projects.
    Author: GASPARINI, ANDREA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
    Department: (DECA)
    Mode: Article-based thesis
    Deposit date: 07/02/2020
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: GRANDIA I BORRÀS, FIDEL | BRUNO I SALGOT, JORGE
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: VOLTATTORNI, NUNZIA
         SECRETARI: FOLCH DURAN, ARNAU
         VOCAL: MAZADIEGO MARTINEZ, LUIS FELIPE
    Thesis abstract: CO2 geological storage is considered one of the options technologically viable in order to decrease the industrial emissions of this gas species that strongly contribute to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere (IPCC, 2005). As naturally, oil and gas are stored in porous rocks that have the same key geological features required for CO2 storage, so CCS aim to recreate a natural process to trap carbon dioxide for millions of years into deep saline aquifer or depleted oil and gas fields. Episodic release of CO2 from underground can occur from either natural processes (i.e., mantle degassing, thermal decarbonation, volcanic areas) or industrial (geological storage of CO2, CCS). Because of leakage can occur at every step of a CCS project, monitoring assumes an important role not only during and after injection but also before in order to know the state of the entire site from deep underground (reservoir level) to surface. In this respect, the use of atmospheric dispersion numerical models helps predicting the dispersion of the CO2-enriched gas plume once emitted from underground and allows an accurate map of risk level through time under particular meteorological conditions. The aim of this PhD. project is to give a better understanding of CO2 behaviour in the unsaturated zone and its atmospheric dispersion. The results are obtained from experimental and numerical modelling of CO2 leakage from an artificial leakage site and from natural analogues applied to risk assessment for CCS sites. To reach the above-mentioned targets and to prove results, this research plan combines experimental activity on site and numerical modelling. The first part of the research plan consisted of a contribution in the PISCO2 project at the ES.CO2 facilities placed in Ponferrada (Spain). The objective of this project was to predict how the injected CO2 will move laterally and vertically in the unsaturated zone and to determine the critical parameters that will affect the ecosystems. This part has been published in a peer review journal and presented in an international congress.The second part of the PhD. project has focused on the study of two natural analogues in volcanic areas. Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage, for both sites two approaches have been followed: a) direct measurement of air concentration and b) numerical atmospheric modelling with the TWODEE2 code. The study of CO2 emissions in natural systems provides a valuable information on the assessment and quantification of potential risks related to underground carbon storage leakage. Emissions of CO2 are studied in a large variety of geological environments, i.e., sedimentary basins, active andnon-active volcanic areas, seismically-active regions, and geothermal fields. Because of the physics of carbon dioxide gas, e.g., colourless, odourless, higher density compared to air, its accumulation may result hazardous and even lethal for life. The objective of atmospheric dispersion modelling is to predict how will move the plume, generated by a leakage in natural degassing systems and CCS sites.Results obtained from this doctorate provide:¿Coupling experimental and numerical data in order to test new methods and/or numerical codes;¿New elements to the knowledge of CO2 behaviours in the unsaturated zone as seen at PISCO2;¿New clues on non-invasive monitoring techniques for CCS sites and natural analogues;¿The usefulness of studying natural analogues;¿The usefulness of the SAP system, as a good method to evaluate high gas emissions from underground;¿The efficiency of atmospheric modelling as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment;¿The importance of risk assessment maps in active degassing areas;¿The need of production of forecasting maps to evaluate dangerous scenarios.¿Numerical models (multiphase transport and atmospheric gas dispersion) are proved to be useful tools to predict gas behaviour inthe vadose zone and in the near-grou

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

  • MACÍAS GARCÍA, ANA ISABEL: Afino microestructural de chapa de acero calidad DDQ mediante procesos de doblado - enderezado
    Author: MACÍAS GARCÍA, ANA ISABEL
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
    Department: (CEM)
    Mode: Confidentiality
    Deposit date: 07/09/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: CABRERA MARRERO, JOSE MARIA | CALVO MUÑOZ, JESSICA
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: GONZÁLEZ REYES, JOSÉ GONZALO
         SECRETARI: MUÑOZ BOLAÑOS, JAIRO ALBERTO
         VOCAL: MERCADO SOLÍS, RAFAEL DAVID
    Thesis abstract: In this thesis, the ability to refine the grain size of a low carbon steel (deep drawing quality, DDQ) was studied by means of two different techniques of Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD). Firstly, the Repetitive Corrugated and Straightening (RCS) technique using a die designed for this project. Likewise, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out to establish processing routes that would guarantee an optimal distribution of the deformation throughout the entire sheet. The second technique chosen was Calibrated Groove Pressing (CGP), for which a classic die design, with walls to restrict motion in both directions, was chosen. Both processes were carried out at room temperature and with lubricant throughout the process. Two processing routes were established for each of the techniques, reaching different levels of deformation in each of them. To know the mechanical response of the material after being processed, Vickers hardness and tensile tests were carried out. In addition, drawing tests were carried out to know the resulting ability of the material to be shaped. The microstructural characterization was carried out by means of the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique, to determine the ability to obtain ultrafine grain size, and the strain distribution and texture evolution. The study of mechanical properties revealed the increase in mechanical strength of the material by increasing the deformation, for both techniques. However, the elongation capacity of the material was severely reduced, causing a great loss of drawability in the final material. According to the microstructural results, the evolution of the grain size refinement was observed for each of the different routes and techniques. The grain size reduction depends directly on the increment of the fraction of low and high angle grain boundaries, which varied as the deformation progressed. The morphology, distribution, and grain size, as well as the stored deformation, modified the texture of the material, obtaining intense textures with distributions along the fibers with a shear and lamination texture orientation.
  • OLIVER CERVELLÓ, LLUÍS: Novel multifunctional biomimetic peptides for bone tissue engineering
    Author: OLIVER CERVELLÓ, LLUÍS
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
    Department: (CEM)
    Mode: Temporary seizure
    Deposit date: 27/07/2022
    Reading date: 03/11/2022
    Reading time: 10:00
    Reading place: EEBE: Sala Polivalent de l'Edifici I, planta baixa. Campus Diagonal-Besòs
    Thesis director: MAS MORUNO, CARLOS
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: SALMERÓN SÁNCHEZ, MANUEL
         SECRETARI: CIPITRIA SAGARDIA, AMAIA
         VOCAL: VALLÉS LLUCH, ANA
    Thesis abstract: Mimicking bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential to improve cell-material interactions. In this regard, the functionalization of materials with biomolecules derived from the bone ECM is a promising approach. In particular, the use of integrin binding molecules in combination with growth factors (GFs)-derived peptides involved in the bone regeneration process, i.e.,BMP-2-derived peptides, can be employed to install bioactivity in biomaterials and reproduce the bone ECM microenvironment.Based on these evidences, the present PhD Thesis focuses on the development of a multifunctional biomimetic peptide integrating the well-known RGD motif and the osteogenic DWIVA sequence derived from the wrist epitope of BMP-2 in a spatially controlled manner, and its use to functionalize different types of biomaterials. This molecule, identified as the RGD-DWIVA biomimetic peptide, is the central core of this PhD Thesis.In Chapter I, functionalization of glass model substrates with the engineered biomimetic peptide is performed. The biological behavior as well as the capacity to synergistically promote integrin/GF signaling of such biomimetic interfaces are then evaluated with C2C12 myoblasts. The results demonstrate the potential of RGD-DWIVA to enhance C2C12 cell adhesion, their transdifferentiation towards the osteogenic lineage and the activation of Smad-independent signaling pathways. Next, with the purpose of finding new BMP-2-derived sequences with osteogenic potential, a small library of synthetic peptides is reported. The osteogenic capacity of these peptides then is screened using the C2C12 cellular model. To our surprise, peptides with better biological properties than DWIVA are not identified, and, therefore, the RGD-DWIVA peptide is continued to be used and evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), showing an improvement in cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation.On the basis of the successful results with MSCs, the PhD Thesis further explores in Chapter II the application of the biomimetic peptide to more clinically relevant biomaterials, i.e., titanium. The extraordinary affinity of the anchoring unit of the peptides to metallic oxides is demonstrated by different physicochemical methods. In addition, the biological effects associated to the cyclization of either one (cRGD-DWIVA) of both bioactive motifs (cRGD-cDWIVA) in comparison to the RGD-DWIVA is also studied. To go a step further, the resulting biomimetic peptides are used to functionalize titanium implants, which are implanted in a rat calvarial deffect. Subsequently, the capacity of the engineered peptides to promote new bone formation and reduce fibrous tissue in vivo is assessed.Chapter III focuses on the translation of the previous strategy from 2D to 3D microenvironments. In this regard, two different hydrogels are studied: alginate and polyethylene glycol (PEG). As preliminary studies, functionalization of both hydrogels with an RGD-model peptide is performed. The rationale behind this approach is to compare the properties of the hydrogels, i.e., composition or mechanical properties, among others. As a result of this study, novel biodegradable PEG hydrogels are selected and further modified with the cRGD-DWIVA and cRGD-cDWIVA biomimetic peptides. A comprehensive physicochemical characterization of the hydrogels is performed, followed by the evaluation of their biological potential, demonstrating their capacity to trigger cell spreading and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.In summary, using our multifunctional biomimetic peptides we were able to mimic the bone ECM (both in 2D and 3D) without the use of GFs, which may pave the way for alternative GF-based treatments in bone tissue engineering.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN NETWORK ENGINEERING

  • GALAL MAHMOUD IBRAHIM, AKRAM: Contribution to The System Architecture Design For Electromagnetic Nano-network Communications
    Author: GALAL MAHMOUD IBRAHIM, AKRAM
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN NETWORK ENGINEERING
    Department: Department of Network Engineering (ENTEL)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 07/09/2022
    Reading date: 17/10/2022
    Reading time: 10:00
    Reading place: ETSETB - UPC CAMPUS NORD - videoconferència: https://meet.google.com/rma-vpsg-vck
    Thesis director: HESSELBACH SERRA, XAVIER
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: FISCHER, ANDREAS
         SECRETARI: DOMINGO ALADREN, MARIA DEL CARMEN
         VOCAL: ERAMO, VINCENZO
    Thesis abstract: A nano-network is a communication network at the nano-scale between nano-devices. Nanodevices face certain challenges in functionalities, because of limitations in their processing capabilities and power management due to their nano-scale size. One of these challenges is the ability to perceive partial or full routing tables, which are the main decision makers for data routing in legacy communication networks. The reason is that creating and updating routing tables continuously require adequate processing power with sufficient memory and computing capabilities, which is not the case with nano- devices. Hence, these devices are expected to perform simple tasks, which equire different and novel approaches. In order to exploit the different functionalities of nano-machines, a set of nano-devices in a full nano-network needs to be managed and controlled using an appropriate architecture. This step will enable unrivaled applications in different fields.An Electromagnetic (EM) nano-network is a type of nano-communication that uses terahertz (THz) EM waves in communication.Nano-network has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Consequently, several developments have been achieved in the fabrication, communication and management of various EM nano network devices serving potential applications ranging from software- defined metamaterials, wireless robotic materials and body-centric communication. Such applications need uplink anddownlink communication between the deployed nano-network and the external macro- world or the Internet through nano-interfaces. This causes heterogeneity and interoperability in different Internet of Nano-things (IoNT) applications, whichbecome new challenges for nano-network communication. In this regard, dynamic, flexible and distributed micro/nano gateways can accommodate such sustainable issues and make the nano-network fully operational, regardless of the adopted application domain or the protocols used in communication.With the arrival of the Internet of Things (IoT), the use of the Internet has transformed, where various types of objects, sensors and devices can interact, making future networks connect nearly everything from traditional network devices to people. It is worth remarking that Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are two useful technologies for IoT. By outlining the way of combining SDN, NFV, IoT and fog computing technologies altogether, nano- network can overcome its challenges and limitations.The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the system architectural design of EM nano- networks by developing an operational communication architecture to allow nano-machines to access the Internet. This communication architecture uses next-generation network technologies such as IoT and fog computing, besides well-known virtualization network technologies such as SDN and NFV to guarantee such accessibility. In addition, this communication architecture will provide added value to the data routing in the nano-network paradigm, whether inside the nano-domain or towards the macro- domain by providingvirtualization and externalization of the complex routing decisions to be compiled externally on a powerful data center hosted on the cloud. The nano-machines will be able to access the cloud with the aid of smart hybrid devices called micro/nano-gateways,which provide two-way communication between nano-machines and the cloud. This two-way communication allows the end-user to easily control and manage a group of nanomachines expanding various applications in different fields. Moreover, it allows the nano-machines to store their measurements on the cloud, providing very large sets of data that are generated by a variety ofnano-sensors/actuators forming big data, where Machine Learning (ML) approaches are used to perform complex analysis, intelligent judgments and creative problem solving on this big data extracting valuable information.
  • OSMAN, MOHAMMED OSMAN: Control Logic Distribution trade-offs in Software-Defined Wireless Networks
    Author: OSMAN, MOHAMMED OSMAN
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN NETWORK ENGINEERING
    Department: Department of Network Engineering (ENTEL)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 18/05/2022
    Reading date: 07/10/2022
    Reading time: 10:00
    Reading place: ETSETB, videoconferència https://meet.google.com/iyk-zmpg-cqh
    Thesis director: MANGUES BAFALLUY, JOSEP
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: AGÜERO CALVO, RAMÓN
         SECRETARI: ZOLA, ENRICA VALERIA
         VOCAL: BARANDA HORTIGÜELA, JORGE
    Thesis abstract: The SDN (Software-Defined Networks) architecture separates the data and the control planes of the networks. It logically centralizes the control of a network in a central point that is an SDN controller, which acts as a brain of the network and is in charge of telling each network node how to forward incoming packets by installing the appropriate forwarding rules. One of the main advantages it brings is programmability through this single entity (the logical controller) with which network management applications must interact to apply their policies. Through agreed-upon APIs, the network managers can exploit the full potential of SDN.SDN generally assumes ideal control channels between the SDN controller and the network nodes, which may not be the case in challenging environments that are becoming more common due to dense deployment of small cells (SCs) with reduced coverage in 5G and beyond 5G deployments. In 5G and beyond 5G use cases, cost-effective wireless transport networks are required to connect the SCs. In this context, mmWave technology is a good player to connect the SCs as mmWave provides larger radio spectrum chunks that in turn provide larger bandwidth and higher data rate.To manage the dense deployment of SCs in the mobile networks, on the network management/control front, network programmability and virtualization are also an integral part of 5G and beyond 5G networks. In this regard, to provide end-to-end connectivity, management and orchestration of all the segments of the networks ranging from RAN (Radio Access Network), transport network to the core is vital. On the transport networks side (the main focus of the dissertation), SDN plays an important role as SDN enables programmability and virtualization in the network.Though SDN Provides huge flexibility in network management by splitting the control plane from the data plane, it has some limitations in wireless networks context as separation of the control plane from the data plane introduce the extra points of failure in the SDN paradigm (e.g., control communication channel failure, SDN controller failure). In the wide-area networks (WAN) scenarios where in-band channels (e.g., microwave or mmWave links) are responsible to carry control traffic between the forwarding nodes and the SDN controller, the assumption of the availability of a reliable network may not be possible as the performance of the wireless link changes with the environmental conditions, which leads to a high risk of experiencing channel impairments, which might cause centralized SDN operation failure by affecting communication between the transport component of SCs and the SDN controller.To overcome SDN from failure, the dissertation presents a hybrid SDN scheme that explores the benefits of centralized and distributed operations depending on control communication channel conditions. Our hybrid SDN approach combines both centralized and distributed modes in the same node to form a hybrid control plane architecture. We introduce a local agent in the node that is composed of a monitoring framework to detect reliability of the control communication channel and a decision module that conceive a novel control logic switching algorithm to make a decision whether to operate in a centralized or distributed mode. We evaluate the proposed solution under a variety of unreliable network conditions (e.g., link impairments, control packet loss) to investigate the operational performance of the hybrid SDN during high loss conditions. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid SDN solution substantially improves the aggregated throughput, particularly when control channel packet loss ratios increase, which in turn keeps the network operational in hard conditions where the centralized SDN would result in a non-operational network.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN NUCLEAR AND IONISING RADIATION ENGINEERING

  • CASAMOR VIDAL, MAX: Evaluation of TH Multi-Scale Coupling Methods in BEPU Analysis
    Author: CASAMOR VIDAL, MAX
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN NUCLEAR AND IONISING RADIATION ENGINEERING
    Department: Department of Physics (FIS)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 08/09/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: FREIXA TERRADAS, JORDI | REVENTOS PUIGJANER, FRANCESC-JOSEP
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: SANCHEZ ESPINOZA, VICTOR HUGO
         SECRETARI: BATET MIRACLE, LLUIS
         VOCAL: AVRAMOVA, MARIA
    Thesis abstract: The combined use of thermal-hydraulics system with sub-channel codes (TH-TH coupling) in transient analysis provides an integrated tool with the capability of modelling in detail both the core thermal-hydraulic conditions and the system behaviour. Different code coupling methods are often used in the nuclear industry to provide accuracy to the calculations while maintaining a sufficient degree of usage. In some cases, and for specific scenarios, the coupling method can be simplified to the off-line transfer of the the boundary conditions from plant models run by system codes to sub-channel codes (off-line coupling). The off-line coupling approach has been considered valid to evaluate the safety margins for limiting parameters such as the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio, which relates the local power with the critical heat flux. The off-line coupling is fast and sufficiently accurate in most situations, however, boundary conditions at the inlet and at the outlet of both solutions will present miss-matchings. In order to overcome the inconsistencies between system and sub-channel codes, advanced on-line coupling methods may be applied (e. g. semi-implicit coupling). These are methods that imply coherent boundary conditions between codes in all domain and are significantly more complex in mathematical terms. The selection of an appropriate coupling method between system and sub-channel codes is crucial. Recent sensitivity studies performed in sub-channel codes have shown a strong influence of the boundary condition's uncertainty to the major figure of merit. The present study aims to evaluate the implications of the coupling methods in safety analysis evaluations in two transients with strong system effects. For this purpose, CTF (a sub-channel code) and RELAP5 (system code) are coupled using two coupling techniques: the off-line coupling, where the boundary conditions are obtained from the RELAP5 model and imposed by table to CTF, and the semi-implicit coupling method, which has been applied to couple CTF and RELAP5, implementing the semi-implicit coupling methodology developed by Weaver in 2002.The selected cases for the study are a complete loss of forced flow and a pressurizer relief valve opening. The models used are, on one hand, a RELAP5 plant model that consists of a full plant model of a generic Westinghouse 3-loop nuclear power plant. On the other hand, a hybrid assembly sub-channel CTF core model has been developed using the same reference data as the RELAP5 model. In recent years, the application of Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) calculations, has gained importance in the scientific community. This method, far from adding conservatism by forcing non-physical conditions to the calculations, tries to take the uncertainties of the calculations into the process. The BEPU method used in the present study is the GRS BEPU method, which implements Wilks' method using order statistics. BEPU analysis can be considered an additional tool for coupling methods comparisons. Results show that base cases and sensitivity analysis present good agreement between the coupling methods with some minor discrepancies. For the first case, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and distributions of the BEPU analysis present similar results for the two approaches. On the contrary, the second case shows differences in the evaluation of the figures of merit, which can be explained and correlated to the boundary conditions deviations between codes. This suggests that non-imposed boundary condition values for the off-line coupling method is an important issue to take into account when applying this type of method for system-dependent transients that are extended in time.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN PHOTONICS

  • BAREZA, NESTOR: Mid-Infrared Surface Sensing Based on Two-Dimensional Materials
    Author: BAREZA, NESTOR
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN PHOTONICS
    Department: Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 22/07/2022
    Reading date: 07/11/2022
    Reading time: 10:00
    Reading place: ICFO: https://teams.microsoft.com/_#/pre-join-calling/19:meeting_N2Q3ZWE4NmYtNTkxOC00NTMxLTgzNTgtYWUzOGIyMjM5Yjlk@thread.v2
    Thesis director: PRUNERI, VALERIO | PAULILLO, BRUNO
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: BACHTOLD, ADRIAN
         SECRETARI: GRIGORENKO, ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH
         VOCAL: MERKOÇI, ARBEN
    Thesis abstract: Mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region between 2 and 20 µm is a powerful technique to identify vibrational absorption signatures of molecules, finding in this way extensive applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring, and chemical analysis. Enhanced IR light-molecules interactions can be achieved by exploiting nanostructured surfaces supporting polaritons ¿ hybrid excitations of light and dipolar elements of matter. Recently, polaritons of two-dimensional van der Waals (2D-vdW) materials unveiled a vibrant playground for mid-IR spectroscopy as they possess remarkable properties such as light trapping at deep nanoscale. This dissertation aims to investigate 2D-vdW materials for technological sensing applications. Hence, we explore the mid-IR sensing performance of nanostructures of widely studied 2D-vdW crystals: graphene (the pioneering vdW material with tunable plasmon polaritons) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN, sustaining ultralow-loss phonon polaritons). Relevant functionalization layers, such as polymer adsorber and antibodies, are combined with the 2D-vdW nanostructures to create gas and for bio-molecular sensors, respectively.Here, we present three main experimental works of 2D-vdW-based mid-IR molecular sensing. First, we investigate the CO2 detection using graphene nanoribbons functionalized with ultrathin CO2-chemisorbing polyethylenimine (PEI). The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of graphene is modulated by varying CO2 gas concentration, whose substantial shifts are influenced by the reversible PEI-induced doping of graphene. Second, we examine the phonon-enhanced CO2 detection of hBN nanoresonators functionalized with thin PEI layer. The phonon-polariton resonance is modulated by varying CO2 levels with high signal-to-noise ratio signals. Third, we present a quantitative bioassay by transducing different vitamin B12 target concentrations into LSPR shifts of bio-functionalized graphene nanostructures (subsequent addition of pyrene linkers and recombinant anti-vB12 antibody fragments). Additionally, we observed the same result-trends for the same bioassay using graphene nanostructures fabricated both by small-scale (i.e., electron beam lithography) and large-scale (i.e., nanoimprint lithography) methods.Our proof-of-concept mid-IR sensing experiments show quantitative results for the detection of gas and biomarker with functionalized 2D-vdW nanostructures. The opportunity of combining the mid-IR spectroscopy with industrially large-scale 2D-vdW nanostructures (e.g., nanoimprinted GNH in this dissertation) would enable cost-effective technologies in future developments. This dissertation contributes to the field of 2D-vdW-based mid-IR spectroscopic sensors towards exploring novel designs and improved sensitivity, which eventually could lower the limit of detection for molecular analytes in various applications.
  • DE ROQUE FERNANDEZ, PABLO MANUEL: Contributions to nanophotonics: linear, nonlinear and quantum phenomena
    Author: DE ROQUE FERNANDEZ, PABLO MANUEL
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN PHOTONICS
    Department: Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 06/04/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: VAN HULST, NIEK
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: QUIDANT, ROMAIN
         SECRETARI: PAPADAKI, GEORGIA
         VOCAL: AIZPURUA IRIAZABAL, JAVIER
    Thesis abstract: Nanophotonics can be defined as the science and technology studying the control optical fields at the nanoscale and their interaction with matter. In order to spatially control such fields we would need structures with characteristic dimensions of the order of the wavelength, bringing us to the nanoscale. A way to control optical fields at this scale is the use of nanoantennas, optical equivalent of radio-antennas. They provide efficient interfaces between near-fields generated by light sources and radiative channels. After a brief Introduction, Chapter 2 describes interaction between single photon emitters and nanoantennas. We start the chapter introducing a method to numerically simulate the interaction. A key concept to solving Maxwell equations is that of the Green function. I show how this function relates to the emission rate of optical emitters in a nanophotonic environment. I then describe an our efforts to build a lifetime-imaging near-field scanning optical microscope. Using this rig we are able to measure changes changes in the emission rate of single emitters that interact with resonant optical antennas. A complementary way to control optical field in the nanoscale is using dielectric confinement. Chapter 3 introduces hybrid structures combining nanoantennas and dielectric waveguides. I generalize the Green function formalism introduced in Chapter 2, and show how this is related to the energy transfer rate between a donor and an acceptor. I use this numerical method to calculate the energy transfer rate in a hybrid structure. An increase of orders of magnitude is found at distances of the order of the wavelengths of the transferred photons. This chapter finishes by discussing the role that the local density of optical states has on the energy transfer efficiency.Nanoantennas increase near-field by orders of magnitude. In these conditions, nonlinear optical effects start to play a role. Chapter 4 is devoted to these nonlinear interactions mediated by nanoantennas. I explore nonlinear interactions in resonant nanoantennas, in particular SHG. First I introduce a method to numerically compute the contributions to SHG generated by the metal in nanoantennas. Both surface and bulk contributions to SHG are considered. I use the numerical method to show that narrowings within the antenna shape are sources of increased SHG. The increase in SHG is attributed to increase of the local field gradients, that increase to the bulk contribution to SHG. We numerically validate our results by performing SHG measurements at the single resonant antenna level.Optical fields are functions of space, but also of time. The development of broadband femtosecond lasers and pulse shaping techniques allows control of optical field down to the femtosecond timescale. Chapter 5 explores the control of optical fields in time. Using phase shaping methods we optimize the two-photon absorption process in single QDs. I introduce a new optimization algorithm, that allows us to perform the optimization using as feedback signal the luminesce from single QDs. We then compare our results with standard phase shaping techniques.Based on their success to effectively control all kinds of optical fields, plasmon supporting nanoantennas are being actively researched in the field of quantum optics. In Chapter 6 I describe a quantum eraser experiment mediated by structures supporting surface plasmon resonances. I first explain the details and subtleties of a quantum eraser experiment. I then detail our efforts to reproduce previously reported results about how to fabricate elliptical bullseye antennas behaving as quarter waveplates. Quarter waveplates are a required part for the quantum eraser effect to take place. An additional key component of our experiment is a bright, state-of-the-art entangle polarization entangle photon source that is described at length. We then perform a quantum eraser experiment mediated by plasmons.
  • GRAVA, STEFANO: Novel quantum interactions between light and dense atomic media
    Author: GRAVA, STEFANO
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN PHOTONICS
    Department: Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 07/09/2022
    Reading date: 28/10/2022
    Reading time: 10:00
    Reading place: ICFO ¿ The Institute of Photonic Sciences - Campus Baix Llobregat - Av.Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) - SPAIN
    Thesis director: CHANG, DARRICK
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: DE RIEDMATTEN, HUGUES
         SECRETARI: BARREDO GONZALEZ, DANIEL
         VOCAL: FERRIER-BARBUT, IGOR JULES
    Thesis abstract: The interface between light and cold atomic ensembles is a fundamental platform to unravel the quantum world and develop quantum technological applications. Its success relies on the simple idea that the efficiency of such an interface can be collectively enhanced by the use of many atoms. While the interaction between its building blocks, a single photon, and a single atom, is theoretically and experimentally understood, instead, the interaction between light and a macroscopic ensemble of motionless atoms is generically a complex system featuring multiple scattering and many-body dipole interactions. To avoid the complexity, typical theories of atom-light interactions treat the atomic medium as smooth. However, it is well-known that microscopic optical effects driven by atomic granularity can lead to important effects, especially in dense media. These phenomena and their consequences on the performance of applications are not completely understood. To take them into account exactly, Chapter 1 introduces a ``spin model'' for light-matter interaction. The rest of the thesis is then divided into three chapters, which push forward our understanding of the interaction of light with dense atomic media.In Chapter 2 it is argued that because of the overwhelming collective macroscopic response an ensemble can exhibit (well captured by the standard theory), many microscopically-driven effects that have been predicted, have also been challenging to observe so far. An essential step is thus to suppress the macroscopic light propagation, so as to allow the microscopic correlations to build up and to be analyzed in a background-free fashion. To solve this issue, a technique to suppress the macroscopic optical dynamics in free space, which allows to precisely investigate many-body aspects of light-matter interaction, will be presented and demonstrated. In particular, we unravel and precisely characterize a microscopic, density-dependent dipolar dephasing effect that generally limits the lifetime of the optical spin-wave order in ensemble-based atom-light interfaces. In Chapter 3 we will go beyond the short-time and dilute limits considered previously, to develop a comprehensive theory of dephasing dynamics for arbitrary times and atomic densities. In particular, our non-perturbative approach is based on the strong-disorder renormalization group (RG), in order to quantitatively predict the dominant role that near-field optical interactions between nearby neighbors have in driving the dephasing process. This theory also enables one to capture the key features of the many-atom dephasing dynamics in terms of an effective single-atom model. These results should shed light on the limits imposed by near-field interactions on quantum optical phenomena in dense atomic media, and illustrate the promise of strong disorder RG as a method of dealing with complex microscopic optical phenomena in such systems.Chapter 4 tries to answer the question of why ordinary materials exhibit a refractive index of order unity and if the answer can come from an electro-dynamical argument. While textbook theories predict nonphysical values when extrapolated to densities of solids, here, we will evaluate the exact linear optical response of a three-dimensional lattice of two-level atoms, first from the band structure and then from a direct numerical simulation. Interestingly, when multiple scattering of light is exactly taken into account, as a result of perfect interference, it is found that an ideal unity-filled array of atoms can have a refractive index that grows with the density and is furthermore real. This implies that a saturation mechanism for the index should come from the quantum chemistry interactions that arise in real materials. Whether saturation could be circumvented, could lead to novel optical materials with transformative technological potential.
  • TROULLINOU, CHARIKLEIA: Squeezed-ligh-enhanced magnetometry in a high density atomic vapor
    Author: TROULLINOU, CHARIKLEIA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN PHOTONICS
    Department: Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 18/07/2022
    Reading date: 29/09/2022
    Reading time: 10:00
    Reading place: ICFO ¿ The Institute of Photonic Sciences - Campus Baix Llobregat - Av.Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) - SPAIN
    Thesis director: MITCHELL, MORGAN
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: SEWELL, ROBERT
         SECRETARI: NOVIKOVA, IRINA BORISOVNA
         VOCAL: VASILAKIS, GEORGIOS
    Thesis abstract: This thesis describes experiments that employ squeezed light to improve the performance of a sensitive optically-pumped magnetometer (OPM). The squeezed light source employs parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations to producesqueezed vacuum and polarization-squeezed light tunable around the Rb D1 line. The OPM employs Bell-Bloom optical pumping of a high density vapor (with atom number density 10^{13}) and paramagnetic Faraday rotation, also on the Rb D1line. The setup allows convenient switching from probing with laser light to probing with polarization-squeezed light, to study the use of the latter in atomic magnetometry.The magnetometer shows sub-pT/Hz^{1/2} sensitivity, limited by quantum noise; spin projection noise at low frequencies(<100Hz) and photon shot noise at high frequencies. Probing with polarization squeezed light suppresses the photon shot noise by 2dB, limited by the available squeezing and optical losses in passing through the vapor. This shot-noisesuppression improves the high-frequency sensitivity and increases the measurement bandwidth, with no observed loss ofsensitivity at any frequency. This result confirms experimentally the expected evasion of measurement back-action noise inthe Bell-Bloom magnetometer.The thesis also develops a physical model to explain the observed spin dynamics of the Bell-Bloom magnetometer. Themodel describes the combined spin and optical polarization dynamics using Bloch equations with stochastic drive and detection noise terms. A perturbative approach and Fourier methods are then used to obtain analytic expressions for themagnetometer's frequency response, spin projection noise and photon shot noise. The role of measurement back-action emerges from a study of this model. As polarization squeezing reduces optical noise in the detected Stokes parameter, theaccompanying ellipticity anti-squeezing is shunted into the unmeasured spin component.The thesis also reports a study of squeezed-light-enhanced magnetometry at a range of atomic densities, from 2.18 10^{12} atoms/cm3 to 1.13 10^{13} atoms/cm3 . Operating with fixed conditions of optical pumping, the signal amplitude, instrumentnoise spectrum and magnetic resonance width are measured as a function of atomic number density, for both laser- and squeezed-light probing. The equivalent magnetic noise spectra are then calculated. In the photon-shot-noise-limited portionof the spectrum, the squeezed light probing improves the magnetometer's sensitivity and measurement bandwidth for thefull range of atomic density values. In particular, the laser-probed magnetometer shows a sensitivity optimum at n ~ 6 10 ^{12} atoms/cm3, and the squeezed-light-probed magnetometer surpasses this sensitivity.The thesis concludes with a discussion of the potential of stronger optical squeezing to enhance the instrument's sensitivityin different portions of the spectrum. Using the theory model we estimate the enhancement of the equivalent magnetic noise spectrum for 2 dB , 5.6 dB and perfect squeezing (zero noise in the detected polarization component) at the input to theatomic medium.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN SIGNAL THEORY AND COMMUNICATIONS

  • BASTA, CHRISTINE RAOUF SAAD: Gender bias in natural language processing
    Author: BASTA, CHRISTINE RAOUF SAAD
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN SIGNAL THEORY AND COMMUNICATIONS
    Department: Department of Signal Theory and Communications (TSC)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 25/07/2022
    Reading date: 14/10/2022
    Reading time: 16:00
    Reading place: ETSETB B3 Teleensenyament, campus nord
    Thesis director: RUIZ COSTA-JUSSA, MARTA
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: CHANG, KAI-WEI
         SECRETARI: NADEU CAMPRUBI, CLIMENT
         VOCAL: DIAB, MONA TALAT
    Thesis abstract: Gender bias is a dangerous form of social bias impacting an essential group of people. The effect of gender bias is propagated to our data, causing the accuracy of the predictions in models to be different depending on gender. In the deep learning era, our models are highly impacted by the training data transferring the negative biases in the data to the models. Natural Language Processing models encounter this amplification of bias in the data. Our thesis is devoted to studying the issue of gender bias in NLP applications from different points of view. To understand and manage the effect of bias amplification, evaluation and mitigation approaches have to be explored. The scientific society has exerted significant efforts in these two directions to enable proposing solutions to the problem. Our thesis is devoted to these two main directions; proposing evaluation schemes, whether as datasets or mechanisms, besides suggesting mitigation techniques. For evaluation, we proposed techniques for evaluating bias in contextualized embeddings and multilingual translation models. Besides, we presented benchmarks for evaluating bias for speech translation and multilingual machine translation models. For mitigation direction, we proposed different approaches in machine translation models by adding contextual text, contextual embeddings, or relaxing the architecture¿s constraints. Our evaluation studies concluded that gender bias is encoded strongly in contextual embeddings representing professions and stereotypical nouns. We also unveiled that algorithms amplify the bias and that the system¿s architecture impacts the behavior. For the evaluation purposes, we contributed to creating several benchmarks for the evaluation purpose; we introduced a benchmark that evaluates gender bias in speech translation systems. This research suggests that the current state of speech translation systems does not enable us to evaluate gender bias accurately because of the low quality of speech translation systems. Additionally, we proposed a toolkit for building multilingual balanced datasets for training and evaluating NMT models. These datasets are balanced within the gender occupation-wise. We found out that high-resource languages usually tend to predict more precise male translations. Our mitigation studies in NMT suggest that the nature of datasets and languages needs to be considered to apply the right approach. Mitigating bias can rely on adding contextual information. However, in other cases, we need to rethink the model and relax some influencing conditions to the bias that do not affect the general performance but reduce the effect of bias amplification.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN SUSTAINABILITY

  • BOTERO POSADA, SIMÓN ANDRÉS: Caracterización y modelación del sistema agroalimentario sostenible en la comunidad de Ziparadó, Resguardo indígena Embera Dóbida de Tanela, municipio de Unguía, departamento del Chocó, Colombia.
    Author: BOTERO POSADA, SIMÓN ANDRÉS
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN SUSTAINABILITY
    Department: University Research Institute for Sustainability Science and Technology (IS.UPC)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 25/07/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: ALVAREZ DEL CASTILLO, JAVIER | RÍOS OSORIO, LEONARDO ALBERTO
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: NICHOLLS ESTRADA, CLARA
         SECRETARI: MORATO FARRERAS, JORDI
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: VAN HOOF, BERNHARDUS
    Thesis abstract: Agro-food systems in indigenous communities, due to their characteristics of complexity and adaptability, must be studied from a multidimensional perspective. In this class of systems, economic, political, environmental, social and cultural factors intervene, and among these there are multiple systemic interrelationships that affect the processes of production, processing, distribution and consumption of foodThe text includes three chapters, related to the specific objectives of this research in which a methodological research proposal is presented, from which it was possible to build a theoretical model of an agri-food system based on socio-ecological resilience, as an essential characteristic for the Sustainability of the agri-food systems of the Ziparadó community in the Embera Dóbida indigenous reservation of Tanela, located in the municipality of Unguía, department of Chocó, ColombiaThe first chapter corresponds to the documentary stage of the Participatory Evaluative Research -IEP- (acronym in Spanish), where a systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA declaration. The selected documents presented topics related to rural communities and their agri-food systems, alternative food networks, farmers' markets, community agriculture, among others. Those texts in which reference was made to industrial-type agri-food systems were excludedIn the second chapter, the diagnostic stage of the (IEP) was developed, which consists of two moments: Exploratory and Deepening, in which, through mixed methods, a characterization of the functional and structural aspects of six agri-food systems of indigenous families was carried outThe third chapter established a theoretical model of a sustainable agri-food system for the indigenous community of Ziparadó, based on socio-ecological resilience and applying the methodology of complex systems.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE

  • ALOY BIBILONI, GUILLEM: Atles d'arquitectura teatral de Palma. Ciutat, Arquitectura i espai escènic
    Author: ALOY BIBILONI, GUILLEM
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
    Department: (THATC)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 06/07/2022
    Reading date: 18/10/2022
    Reading time: 11:00
    Reading place: ETSAB: Sala de Graus ETSAB
    Thesis director: RAMON GRAELLS, ANTONI | MAS VIVES, JOAN
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: LLORENTE DIAZ, MARTA
         SECRETARI: FERRER FORES, JAIME JOSE
         VOCAL: PIRES CASTANHEIRA, JOSÉ MANUEL
         VOCAL: PACE, SERGIO
         VOCAL: DE BLAS GÓMEZ, FELISA
    Thesis abstract: The research of the place of theatre in Palma explores the existing, disappeared and closed spaces throughout the history of the city. This catalog includes 113 performance spaces, some with ostentatious will, but most of them humble. An architectural typological system of leisure and culture that opens a series of questions: What is the reason for its construction? Who are its agents and its architecture? Which is the place of the theatre in Palma?In this historical and urban research, the study of the space of the theatre becomes a mean to read the relationship between architecture and culture over the centuries. Beyond its architectural typology, it has been the theatrical and the performative event itself, with a broad scope, that defined the spaces of the theatre; where the architecture and the scenography create a meeting place, at the same time, in the same space, of actors and audience.KeywordsArchitecture, Urbanism, History, Scenic Space, Theatre, Palma, Mallorca
  • AMARAL IBARRA, VICENTE ARMANDO: La modernidad cultivada. Los empresarios agrícolas en la arquitectura y el urbanismo de Culiacán (1940-1960)
    Author: AMARAL IBARRA, VICENTE ARMANDO
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
    Department: (THATC)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 06/09/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: GARCIA ESTEVEZ, CAROLINA BEATRIZ | ROVIRA GIMENO, JOSE MARIA
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: ROJO CARRASCAL, JUAN CARLOS
         SECRETARI: GRAUS ROVIRA, RAMON
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: OCHOA VEGA, ALEJANDRO
    Thesis abstract: From the end of the 19th century, mining production began to decline, and agriculture became more important for the economy of the state of Sinaloa. With the projects of the post-revolutionary governments of the first half of the 20th century, this activity became the core axis for the development of the region. This event caused a population rearrangement and a gradual abandonment of the mining cities towards the valleys. This research deals with the transition from a small traditional city in the northwest Mexico to a modern urban nucleus. It seeks to reflect on the role played by local processes in order to achieve architectural and urban modernity. This analysis considers the investments of agricultural entrepreneurs as the engine that drove this transformation. The urban changes that were generated during the decades of 1940 to 1960 marked the course of what will be the city of the 20th century. This topic is analyzed from a historical perspective. The objective is to demonstrate that part of the profits obtained from the export of agricultural products, mainly to the United States, were used for the construction of various architectural and urban works that gave rise to the modern city. This phase coincided with the rise of Mexican Functionalism and the International Style, which gave rise to the creation of new urban and architectural spaces for agricultural entrepreneurs, as well as a public policy to provide the city with infrastructure and equipment to make it functional and hygienic With these changes, the agrarian elites imprinted a new meaning on the city and a reconfiguration of the urban fabric, giving rise to new itineraries, and routes that have been essential for the contemporary city. What we call in this work "a cultivated modernity" was engendered, since its main economic force was agriculture. Agricultural production generated enough wealth to transform a traditional settlement into a modern city, giving it special characteristics as it was closely linked to agriculture and the rural environment. This architectural modernity manifested itself in the different urban sectors, advancing towards the places that would later be occupied by the agricultural elites with their investments. It was a model where the benefits of progress were implemented in a fragmented manner. Many cities in Mexico and Latin America went through this process of architectural modernization during the 1940s and 1950s. With this work on Culiacán, we intend to follow the course of the cities of northwestern Mexico.
  • GARNICA GONZALEZ-BARCENA, JULIO FIDEL: Atravesar la modernidad: la arquitectura de Harnden y Bombelli (1948-1971), entre la Guerra Fría y la tradición mediterránea
    Author: GARNICA GONZALEZ-BARCENA, JULIO FIDEL
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN THEORY AND HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
    Department: (THATC)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 02/09/2022
    Reading date: 03/10/2022
    Reading time: 11:00
    Reading place: ETSAB- Sala de Graus ETSAB
    Thesis director: GARCIA ESTEVEZ, CAROLINA BEATRIZ | ROVIRA GIMENO, JOSE MARIA
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: SANCHEZ LAMPREAVE, RICARDO
         SECRETARI: GRANELL TRIAS, ENRIQUE
         VOCAL: GUERRERO LOPEZ, SALVADOR
    Thesis abstract: At the end of 1949, the American architect Peter G. Harnden (1913-1971), then in charge of the Marshall Plan's exhibition center in Europe, and the young Italian architect Lanfranco Bombelli (1921-2008), trained in Switzerland in the practice of Concrete Art, met in Paris. A fruitful professional and personal relationship began between the two -truncated in 1971 with Harnden's premature death- which trajectory, as surprising as it is unclassifiable, is centered on architecture, exhibition techniques and visual advertising. The aim of this paper is to describe, analyze and interpret - as an unicum - an architectural path as unexpected as it is still little known. Along this path, Harnden and Bombelli cross modernity thanks to an unprecedented compromise between the conditions imposed by their own present, characterized by the events of the so-called Cold War, and the yearning to achieve a particular interpretation of the most timeless Mediterranean tradition.During the first years of the 1950s, Harnden and Bombelli developed from various agencies of the American administration installed in Paris (ECA, MSA, USIA) an intense program for the design and organization of the exhibitions that toured Europe proclaiming the advantages of the Marshall Plan, the history of the birth of NATO, or the advantages of productivity. Under the American's baton, Harnden's big band architecture, an international team of professionals who always work as a team, is in charge of the various traveling exhibitions that tour the old continent: Europe builds, Caravan of peace, Train of Europe, Productivity or Barges. The strategy also includes the mounting of several fixed exhibitions such as Wir bauen ein besseres leben or the organization of a series of exhibitions aimed at disseminating the benefits of atomic energy. From 1955 onwards, Americanization takes command and, commissioned by the Department of Commerce, they were responsible for designing the pavilions with which the USA participated in European trade fairs. In 1956 they founded in Orgeval PGHA Peter Graham Harnden Associates, an "international office of architects and technicians specialized in visual advertising and industrial aesthetics", where they dedicated, as independent professionals, to the design of all types of exhibitions for various American organizations. Their work included the pavilions designed for the Valencia (1955), Barcelona (1955, 1956, 1957) and Madrid (1959) Fairs, a series of imported rationalisms that made an impact on the general public, but also on local professionals, who took note of the advantages of dry construction, the efficiency of assembly and the visual possibilities of advertising.In 1959, upon the recommendation of architect J.A. Coderch, Harnden and Bombelli visited the Spanish town of Cadaqués, "the only beautiful village left in Spain". Fascinated by the landscape, the geography and the effervescent cultural and social atmosphere of this authentic Mediterranean island, they decided to buy and renovate Villa Gloria, and shortly afterwards, in 1962, they settled in Barcelona and founded the firm Harnden&Bombelli. From then on, they combined commissions for exhibition installations with new projects, among which the houses built in Spain stand out. In barely a decade, their brief but intense work, both in Cadaqués and in other Mediterranean areas, establishes an unprecedented and enriching dialogue between modernity and Mediterranean tradition. A sort of Westinghouse regionalism that oscillates between a passionate respect for the landscape and traditional construction, and the uninhibited display of a particular sense of comfort. Artificially popular and with no other pretension than to go unnoticed, these houses are like exhibitions, organized in genuinely democratic living rooms arranged around the atavistic fire of the fireplaces.

DOCTORAL DEGREE IN URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT AND VALUATION

  • ARELLANO RAMOS, BLANCA ESMARAGDA: El Urban Sprawl. Un modelo de urbanización insostenible
    Author: ARELLANO RAMOS, BLANCA ESMARAGDA
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT AND VALUATION
    Department: Department of Architectural Technology (TA)
    Mode: Article-based thesis
    Deposit date: 25/07/2022
    Reading date: 30/09/2022
    Reading time: 01:00
    Reading place: ETSAB- UPC CAMPUS NORD - videoconferència: https://meet.google.com/cia-wngh-ppj
    Thesis director: ROCA CLADERA, JOSE NICASIO
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: MARMOLEJO DUARTE, CARLOS RAMIRO
         SECRETARI: FLORES LUCERO, MARIA DE LOURDES
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: CERASOLI, MARIO
    Thesis abstract: The present thesis consists in a PhD thesis by compendium of publications. The general objective of the thesis is the analysis of the phenomenon of the Urban Sprawl, on a planetary scale, starting from the hypothesis that it is an unsustainable process. For the development, specific objectives were set that include the evolution of the research through a selection of 20 papers. The objectives are:a) Analyzing the Urban Sprawl urbanization model, by reviewing the specialized literature;b) Studying the genesis and evolution c) Quantify the Urban Sprawl from databases of local, regional and global, raising the question: is the Sprawl a phenomenon of planetary scope?d) Verify the hypothesis that in Europe, despite having a relatively dense metropolitan structure, there is a pronounced process of Urban Sprawl in the peripheries of large citiese) Define the ¿city¿ in the Sprawl era, defining urban and metropolitan systems based on morphological, economic and functional criteriaf) Develop a methodology for the analysis of the internal structure of metropolises, capable of contrasting the degree of monocentrism and polycentrism of urban and metropolitan systems and verify the hypothesis that a higher degree of polycentrism reduces the degree of Sprawl (+ Polycentrism =-Sprawl)g) Apply this methodology to the analysis of specific cases, such as the Spanish urban systemh) Apply the above methodology to analyze the efficiency in land consumption of the metropolitan systems of Madrid and Barcelona, Los Angeles and Chicagoi) Analyze the process of urbanization through the land impacted by urbanization on a global scale, through images of night lights, delimiting metropolitan and megalopolitan areas and defining the different landscapes of human settlementsj) Assess suitability of nighttime images to identify urban areas (in relation to rural settlements), and especially the Urban Sprawl, as well as, quantify the retrospective (and prospective) dynamics of the urbanization process (with special attention to China)k) Evaluate the climatic behavior of dispersed and low-density fabrics in comparison to the rest of urban and rural fabrics and uses;l) Study the daytime and nighttime Urban Heat Island (UHI), its spatial distribution and climatic performance of the different types of land covers;m) Study the urban factors that increase the adaptation of cities to global warming, specifically, urban parks as islands of cold in the context of the UHIn) Analyze the effects of heat waves on health, as well as the effect of urban greenery.The thesis, on the one hand, confirms the hypothesis of the unsustainability of the Urban Sprawl, since it implies a high consumption of land, in addition to generating unsustainable mobility. In the same way, it implies a fragmented and dispersed urbanization model, higher energy consumption and promotes social segregation. On the other hand, from the perspective of adaptation to climate change, the Urban Sprawl undoubtedly has a better performance, mainly due to the quality and quantity of green areas present in this type of urban fabric (absent in the central and dense city) and its proximity to those rural or forest areas, which are spaces that produce fresh air.The great challenge of spatial and urban planning is to stop this process of urban expansion without compromising the quality of life, comfort and human health. In this sense, it is necessary to proceed with a radical regeneration of the inherited urban fabrics. The compact city model cannot simply be considered the paradigm of sustainability. It must learn from the green spaces per inhabitant present in the Sprawl. Therefore, it can be concluded that green compactness is the new paradigm of 21st century cities.
  • VARGAS BELTRÁN, DAN DELVI: Evaluación crítica de los nuevos sistemas de transporte público en la ciudad de La Paz, desde la perspectiva de la planificación, gestión y gobernanza
    Author: VARGAS BELTRÁN, DAN DELVI
    Thesis file: (contact the Doctoral School to confirm you have a valid doctoral degree and to get the link to the thesis)
    Programme: DOCTORAL DEGREE IN URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT AND VALUATION
    Department: Department of Architectural Technology (TA)
    Mode: Normal
    Deposit date: 20/07/2022
    Reading date: pending
    Reading time: pending
    Reading place: pending
    Thesis director: MARMOLEJO DUARTE, CARLOS RAMIRO
    Committee:
         PRESIDENT: ROCA CLADERA, JOSE NICASIO
         SECRETARI: NARANJO RAMOS, YELITZA GIANELLA
         VOCAL NO PRESENCIAL: MAIDANA ZEBALLOS, JESSICA FABIOLA
    Thesis abstract: The characteristics of the transport system are what explain the difficulties and facilities for mobility and access to services. The transport situation in the urban area of La Paz has been worsening over time, since the demonopolization of transport in the 1980s, a moment from which the transport activity has freedom of organization and development of the itself, which has grown, since it is the union that hosts the large percentage of unemployment. This freedom, together with the absence of public regulation, has caused transport to be chaotic and disorderly. The central government and the municipal governments of La Paz and El Alto have been working for years to improve this situation, implementing three transportation systems: Mi Teleférico (Central Government), Puma Katari bus (GAMLP) and El Wayna Bus (GAMEA). Despite the implementation of these three projects, the transportation situation in the urban area of La Paz has not changed significantly, covering close to 10% of travel demand.On the other hand, a series of problems have been evidenced in the service of these three systems, added to a high index of subsidy of the service, causing the (Wayna Bus) to stop providing the service, because it is economically impossible to maintain the service. service; the operation of the Puma Katari bus has put the GAMLP in serious economic problems; and the cable car service is maintained thanks to the high influx of passengers only on three of its 10 lines that link the municipalities of La Paz and El Alto. In this sense, it is necessary to analyze the process of planning, management and level of governance in these services. The importance of this study also lies in the possibility of contrasting the theoretical aspects related to mobility and transport, the analysis and evaluation of public transport projects, with empirical evidence, to conclude with the design of a proposal that improves mobility and transportation in the Metropolitan region.In new investment projects, they have the characteristic of prioritizing political, technical and financial aspects, leaving aside the usefulness, if it affects a problem and the impact on different scales and areas, therefore, it is intended that the results of the study provide inputs for that the three governmental levels develop policies, programs and projects aimed at improving transport conditions in the urban area of La Paz and ensuring that citizens understand the importance of their participation in the planning and implementation of this type of project. For which the methodology of the Logical Framework is applied, implemented by the (ILPES), to promote the long-term vision, coordination, evaluation and strategic coordination in planning, which allows the formulation of multisectoral concerted plans and policies, allowing a management measured by results, impact and achievement of goals, allowing public, private and social participation.The proposal is structured based on establishing planning and management at the metropolitan level, based on four pillars: Law creating the Metropolitan Region of La Paz, Metropolitan Institutional Structure, Metropolitan Forum, Metropolitan Citizen Committee. Within the institutional structure, create a metropolitan entity for mobility and transport, implement the programs of: integrated metropolitan transport, transformation of traditional transport, training and awareness, and road infrastructure, within which projects aimed at improving mobility and transport in the region will be implemented metropolitan.

Last update: 24/09/2022 04:45:16.